Guardian’s view on African success: One step closer to overcoming polio | Editorial | Opinion

P.Olive arrives, if it declares itself as high temperature. There may be a sore throat, a headache, or an upset stomach. It can go away in a week or so, and the flu can be mistaken. It is spread through poor hygiene, affects children under the age of five, and many people do not realize they have taken it. However, in 5-10% of cases, the virus affects the nerves, especially the legs. Sometimes it reaches the lungs. For the most part, this is temporary. For others – Thirty years ago, they had 350,000 children a year – Paralysis is permanent, and if it occurs in the lungs, they die. No one saw the effect of forgetting polio.

Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during the early 20th century. Everyone was charged by the transmission in the United States Cats Blueberry to Italian immigrants until the early 1950s, the American people ranked it second The worst fear After the nuclear war. When, in 1955, a vaccine was developed, the British held street parties. The number of cases dropped immediately. In 1960, it was Czechoslovakia First Announcing the end. The last natural case of polio in Britain was in 1984. In 1994, polio spread to the United States. In the western Pacific region (including China) in 2000; In Europe in 2002; India and Southeast Asia in 2014. Africa joined the ranks last week. Only Pakistan and Afghanistan remain.

The global project involves 20 million volunteers Vaccination About 3 3 billion children. This is an amazing feat. But it is still fragile for a number of reasons. First, what is being eradicated is wild polio – that is, naturally occurring, of which there are three strains. It still is Possible To obtain a vaccine-derived polio, where extremely weak active ingredients spread to a vaccine community and, in rare cases, return to a completely contagious disease.

The second obstacle is. In Africa, the last 1% proved to be the most difficult due in part to war and anti-vaccination sentiment. In 2003, communities in northern Nigeria Refused The vaccine is due to rumors about its safety. In five years, an epidemic spread to 20 countries, and more patience was needed to end it. In Pakistan, where CIA Using Hepatitis B vaccine to gain access to Osama bin Laden’s compound, the Taliban deliberately killed polio volunteers. And this year, Covid 19 forced programs Pause.

Third, the end is in its final, most critical phase. The vaccine, a drop-in procedure that contains the active virus and has a lifetime immunity, must eventually replace the inactivated strain injection to eliminate all risk of the polio virus from the vaccine. As has already happened in the UK). Wild type 2 was polio Deleted In 1999, and the active version in 2016, drop by drop, the vaccine was officially removed. However, type 2 vaccine-derived polio continues to circulate. Last year, the first new polio vaccine in 50 years – a genetically engineered virus ڈیزائن was designed to make it less likely to recur. Belgium, But it’s not ready yet. That way, we’re both closer to a complete solution than we’ve ever been. And there is a risk of slipping behind.

This year, when Western societies have not suffered from the disease for decades (or at least, since the AIDS crisis), there is a lot to be said about the story of polio – from the hidden beginnings. Concerns about antivirals, as far as a vaccine is concerned. But we should also learn other lessons: this elimination can take many years under patient supervision. That we are capable of great things. And that we must be prepared.

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