California: The rapidly spreading variants of the corona virus that result from covid 19, SARS-CoV-2, Make changes that enable the virus to avoid anything Immune response A new study by a team of researchers, created naturally or by vaccination, reveals important details about how these mutations in escape work.
With Scripps Research scientists, as well as colleagues from Germany and the Netherlands, whose study reveals scienceStructural biology techniques are used to map at high resolution how important classes of neutralizing antibodies are linked to the original epidemic of SARS-COVI 2. And how the process is affected by the changes in the new variables found for the first time in Brazil, the UK. , South Africa And India.
Research has also shown that these multiple mutations are clustered into a single site, called the “receptor binding site” on the spike protein of the virus. Other sites in the receptor binding domain are not affected.
“One implication of this study is that, in the design of next-generation vaccines and antibody treatments, we should consider increasing the focus on other vulnerable sites on the virus that are not affected by mutations found in different forms of anxiety.” There are.” Lead author Meng Yuan, Ph.D.
Yuan is a postdoctoral research associate at senior author Ian’s Laboratory WilsonHanson, Professor of Structural Biology at DPhil, Script Research, and Chair of the Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology.
How ‘different types of anxiety’ are avoided by the immune response
SARS-CO-2 “Variations of Anxiety” includes B.1.1.7 variants of the United Kingdom, B.1.351 variants of South Africa, P1 variants of Brazil and B.1.617 variants of India. Some of these variations appear to be more contagious than the original Wuhan Stress Recent studies have shown that natural infections produce antibodies to real strains or vaccinations that are less effective at neutralizing these different strains.
Because of the variables in the spread of the disease and its causes – perhaps in some cases, despite vaccination – scientists have found it important to know a variety of factors, including antibody reactions in the body, to avoid pre-immune reactions in the body. Is managed.
In the study, researchers mainly focused on three mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: K417N, E484K and N501Y. Alone or together, these mutations occur in most important SARS Covey-2 variants. All mutations are found in the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding site, from where the virus hosts cells.
The researchers tested large class of representative antibodies that target the receptor binding site and the surrounding area. They found that many of these antibodies lost their ability to bind and neutralize the virus effectively when mutations were present.
Using structural imaging techniques, the team then mapped the relevant part of the virus in atomic scale resolution to examine how mutations affect the sites where antibodies bind to the virus. Is and neutralizes.
“This work provides a structural explanation of why natural infections caused by antibodies secreted by the Covid 19 vaccine or by infectious diseases are often not effective against these different forms of anxiety,” says Wilson. ”
Zero on weaknesses
The results show that although the antibody response at the SARS Covey 2 receptor binding site may be very powerful in neutralizing the original Wuhan strain, some variants are able to escape – perhaps the latest vaccine. Is required.
At the same time, this study highlights the fact that the three major wireless mutations, which SARS-CO-2 seem to risk evolving naturally, do not replace other vulnerable sites of the virus outside the receptor binding site. Are In particular, researchers have shown that virus-infected antibodies that target two other areas outside the receptor binding site were not significantly affected by these three mutations.
This suggests that future vaccines and antibody-based treatments may provide extensive protection against SARS Covey 2 and its variants, allowing the use of antibodies against those parts of the virus that are at the receptor binding site. Are out of Researchers note that extensive protection against variants may be needed, and if this happens, it is likely that the virus will become a localized part of the human population.
In this study, Wilson Lab and colleagues are continuing to study the human antibody response to various forms of anxiety and hope to develop a broader approach not only against SARS-Co-2 and its variants but also Will also identify strategies for protection against SARS-1 and other related, emerging corona viruses.
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