Studies show that brain noise has a unique signature of dream sleep

Studies show that brain noise has a unique signature of dream sleep

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Washington: When we dream, our brain is filled with noisy electrical activity that is similar to the awakened brain. But researchers have detected a hint of noise, which defines sleep apnea or REM (rapid eye movement), possibly making it easier to monitor people with sleep disorders, as well as patients with unconscious coma or under anesthesia.
The study depicts the first (electroencephalogram) EEM measurement of REM sleep that allows scientists to dream from waking up, was published in the journal eLife.
Every year, thousands of people study overnight to diagnose problems with their sleep, with most of them leaning to an EEG to monitor brain activity as they go from waking to deep, slow sleeping and REM sleep Let’s progress. But EEG alone cannot tell whether a patient is awake or dreaming: doctors can isolate REM sleep only by recording fast movements of the eye – hence, the name – and muscle tone, since our body A normal paralysis is relaxed to prevent ejection. Our dreams.
“We actually now have a metric that properly tells you when you’re in REM sleep. It’s a universal metric of unconsciousness,” said Robert Knight, a professor of psychology and neuroscience and senior author of the paper .
Co-author and sleep researcher Matthew Walker, professor of psychology and neuroscience UC Berkeley, said, “These new findings suggest that something buried in the electrostatic of the human brain is unique.” “And if we measure that simple electrical signature, for the first time, we can precisely determine which state of consciousness a person is experiencing – dreamy, wide awake, anesthetic, or in deep sleep.”
The ability to differentiate REM sleep via EEG will allow doctors to monitor people under anesthesia during surgery to find out how drug-induced unconsciousness differs from normal sleep – a still unresolved Question. This is why the first author, Janna Landner, who is a medical resident in anesthesiology, initiated the study.
“We often tell our patients that ‘you’ll sleep now,’ and I was curious how much these two states actually overlap,” said Lendner, a UC Berkeley postdoctoral fellow who is a fourth-year fellow of anesthesiology at University Medical. Center in Tübingen, Germany. “Anesthesia can have some side effects. If we learn a little bit about how they overlap – perhaps anesthesia can hijack some sleep pathways – then we can improve anesthesia in the long run.”
Sleep, as Walker wrote in his 2017 book, “Why We Sleep,” “enriches a wide variety of tasks, including our ability to learn, remember, and make logical decisions and selections generously.” Serving our psychological health, sleep rearranges our emotional brain circuits. Allows us to navigate the social and psychological challenges of the next day with cool-headed compositions. ”
Interrupted sleep interferes with all of this, increasing the risk of medical, psychiatric and neurological diseases.
Most sleep research focuses on rhythmic waves flowing through the brain’s neural network, from slow waves that indicate deep sleep, usually in the first few hours of the night, to high frequency waves of dream sleep. These waves emit a lot of normal activity, also known as 1 / f, which is usually dismissed as noise.
But Knight and his lab have been observing this “noise” for a decade and found that it contains useful information about the state of the brain. In 2015, for example, he and Bradley Voytech, a former doctoral student at the faculty at UC San Diego, found that the amount of high-frequency activity increases with age. Lander has now found that the rapid drop-off of high-frequency activity, relative to low-frequency activity, is a unique signature of REM sleep.
“There is this background activity, which is not rhythmic, and we have ignored it for a very long time,” Lander said. “Sometimes, it is called noise, but it is not noise; it gives a lot of information, also about the underlying stimulus. This remedy makes it possible to distinguish REM’s sleep from waking up just by looking at the EEG.”
Since slow waves are associated with inhibition of activity in the brain, while high frequency activity – such as occurs during waking – is associated with excitatory behavior, the closure of fast currents may be an indication that the brain involves multiple activities Are, including those related to the movement of muscles, being pressed down during REM sleep.
The new measure determines the relationship of brain activity at different frequencies – how much activity is at frequencies from about 1 cycle per second to 50 cycles per second – and determines the slope, that is, how fast the spectrum falls. This 1 / f “drop-off” GE is faster in sleep, when in the waking state or under anesthesia.
Lander found this specific measurement in the nocturnal brain activity of 20 people recorded via EEG scalp electrodes at Walker’s UC Berkeley Sleep Lab and in 10 people whose brain has discovered epilepsy as an essential preamble Electrodes were placed in his brain. Surgery to reduce seizures.
They recorded brain activity in 12 epileptic patients and nine other patients with spinal surgery with elevated general anesthetic prophol.
Lender is now reviewing brain recordings from patients with coma to see how their brain activity changes over a day and using a 1 / f drop-off to indicate the possibility of emerging from a coma. May or not.
“More importantly, I think it’s another metric for evaluating states of coma,” Knight said. “1 / f is very sensitive. It can resolve, for example, if a person was in a minimum conscious state and they are not moving and are more cautious than they think they are.”

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