Understanding climate change through frozen information in minerals

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Bengaluru: While scientists around the world agree that clues to climate change in the past have been found in fossil, microorganisms, gases trapped in ice and isotopes, cumbersome laboratory techniques that are expensive and time consuming.
Indian scientists have now designed a technology using magnetic minerals that is fast and efficient to solve this issue. Scientists at the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) track climate change by following the paleomonosonal patterns of the subcontinent by tapping magnetic mineralogy, a technique they claim is faster and accurate than current methods.
The team at IIG, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), is “sensitive to changes in chemical and physical processes that occur as a result of magnetic mineralogy concentration, grain size, and mineralogy changes.”
In a study published in the journal Sage, Praveen Gawli and his team of researchers collected climate and environmental studies to collect sediment samples from different environments and climatic regions of India and to remove frozen information in magnetic minerals as magnetic parameters. Mixed and organized. Such as magnetic sensitivity, anesthetic remittent magnetization, saturation induced remanent magnetization, hysteresis loops, Curie temperature.
“Climate studies are conducted with the help of fossils, microorganisms, gases trapped in ice, isotopes, and many others. They, however, take time and effort to separate from the original material, and laboratory techniques are cumbersome. Additionally, the material required to complete various measurements is quite high. “The means are also very expensive,” DST said in a statement.
Study of the Indian monsoon and its variability – through various continents – tree rings, paleoceles, spelothems, fluvo laxinean sediments, peat deposits, microfossils, magnetic minerals, etc. – and oceanic (Feminifera, isotopes, isotope ratios, organic materials of sediments). has been done. ) Nigh.
IIG scientists used a change in properties of magnetic minerals to research India’s paleomonosonal patterns, a new technology implemented in our country.
“The study of these changes exposes physico-chemical governance operations in the past, which helps gauge the prevailing climate patterns. Magnetic minerals are sensitive to the physical and chemical environment in which they are embedded. These external changes bring modifications to the innate structure of these magnetic minerals, which change them from one magnetic phase to another, ”added DST.
In this process, magnetic mineralogy also changes, for example, from magnetite to hematite and vice versa. There are also some intermediate phases that attract the attention of researchers from these magnetic phases strictly to complex climatic conditions over time.
Scientists reported that generally, the original rocks from which sediment is extracted do not contain magnetic minerals that exceed 1% of the total volume or weight of those rocks. The concentration of magnetic minerals in sediments is very low.
However, it is sufficient to conduct climate studies as these minerals reveal the true nature of the prevailing climatic and environmental conditions at the time of their deposition. Once the instrument is placed in a lab, the overhead and maintenance charge are fairly moderate, making measurements, over the years, quite cheap.
Additionally, he said, the time taken is too short. One of a few hundred samples of magnetic parameters can be measured in a day. Mineral magnetic studies reveal four regional climatological features within the Indian subcontinent and one local climatic event.
“High monsoon rainfall in the western part of India between 25–60 k (thousand years) was shown to correspond to glacial melt in the Himalayas between 29 and 18 ka. Later, the monsoon weakening in the Himalayas was anticipated, and in the interior of the Arabian Sea between 20 and 15 ka, cold, and dry conditions prevailed in Dhakuri, causing loess deposits starting at 20 ka. Was built, ”he said.
In the western and eastern parts of India, the intensity of the monsoon has fallen between 13 and 10 ka with major effects in the interior of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Between 4 and 2.5 ka, the Holocene’s dryness and weak monsoon were estimated to be prevalent in the subcontinent. The local feature of small dry cooling is limited to the upper reaches of the Himalayas.
“The forecast of this change must be accurate and a high degree of accuracy can be achieved if we go too far behind time. Thus the current studies with the help of sedimentation and accuracy by IIG in which magnetic minerals stabilize the environment and climatic conditions will help to screen many different domains with very high speed and high degree of accuracy, ”said DST .

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